Verbal inflection

There is a range of TAM suffixes, as well as one third person prefix.

The third person prefix ta-

The only inflectional morphology is a third person prefix ta-. It only occurs on transitive verbs, and seems to be restricted to 3>3 scenarios, i.e. when a third person referent is acting on another third person referent . However, it is not obligatory . Also, it can cooccur with free noun phrases referencing either the A or the P . The conditioning factors for its (non-)occurrence in 3>3 scenarios are unknown. Note that the free pronouns wïrë, mërë and ejnë (Pronouns) can occur in the same location as ta-, but also on intransitive verbs (see Simple verbal clauses). to do: small study: length/prominence of first and second person?

    1. He saw it. / lo vio
    2. They saw it too, they saw it. / lo vieron también, lo vieron

Main clause tense‑aspect‑mood‑polarity suffixes

Verbs in main clauses are inflected for TAMP with a set of suffixes, shown in ref. They are discussed in ref; for a detailed overview of past markers see Cáceres & Gildea (2022) to do: add to bibliography.

Verbal TAM suffixes

Suffix Function
-ri imperfective
-jpë past
-se past perfective
-sapë perfect
-sarë imminent future
-nëpëkë progressive (intr)
pëkë progressive (tr)
‑tojpano future
(-tojpe) future
-ja negation
-se-mï obligation
-në impersonal S
-topo ?

Non-declarative suffixes

Suffix Function
‑jrama prohibitive
-i jussive
-kë imperative
-ta motion imperative

to do: discuss =pano 'conclusion'

The imperfective -ri

  • allomorphy:
  • diachrony: from -riacnnmlz’ (The action nominalizer -ri)
  • plural: kontomopl
  • negation: jraneg, but potentially two distinct etymologies to do: -ri with postverbal [possessed?] arguments?
  • semantics:
    • not specified for tense, only imperfective aspect:
      • past
      • future
      • gnomic/present?



  • allomorphy: -se/-cheptcp, sup’ (Palatalization)
  • diachrony: from -septcp, supto do: where is the participle discussed?
  • negation: replaced with -janeg (see also crossref#cldf:negation))
  • plural: kontomopl’ and jnepl
  • semantics: unclear to do: semantics of se?


to do: semantics?

  1. Maybe she did not come out (pregnant). / tal vez no salió (embarazada)


  • once a converb, now 'imminent future'
  • allomorphy: -charë (Palatalization)
  • negation: ?
  • semantics: ?
  • plural: ?

Subordinate Clause markers

to do: decide if these should be moved to another section

  • Nominalizations
    • -riacnnmlz
    • -jpëpst.acnnmlz
    • -topocirc.nmlz
  • Adverbial Clauses (S/A)
    • -se ‘supine’
    • -tane ‘concessive’
    • -sarë ‘converb’
    • ‑yapo ‘neg.purp’
    • others?
  • Nominalization + postposition (S/P)
    • -∅ipfvyawë ‘when’
    • -∅ipfvpeess’ ‘when’
    • -sajabs.nmlzyawë ‘simult’
    • -tojpe ‘purpose’
    • (‑jpë)=tërë ‘after’
    • on auxiliary: -ri + po 'ctrf'
  • not attested:
    • se 'des'
    • -ajtawï 'if when'


The main number marking strategy for verbs uses the particle kontomopl’, which usually encliticizes to the verb. It occurs with all major TAM suffixes .

    1. Did they escape? / !¿se escaparon?

Copula / Auxiliary

  • there is (synchronically suppletive) stem allomorphy: chi and wej


  1. add a paradigm of the copula
  2. find potential particles developed from inflected forms: man, wai, manai, etc
  3. are there irregular past/perfect participles? nahkë, etc?
  4. ejnë may come from an inflected form of the copula