There are a number of negation strategies in Yawarana. The most general negator is the particle =jraneg’, which can negate a number of constructions. It occurs encliticized to transitive and intransitive verbs , nouns , adverbs , and postpositions .

On verbs, it sometimes occurs with an overt allomorph of -riipfv, sometimes its zero allomorph, shown in .

This variation is found in other contexts as well, but the conditioning factors of the deletion are currently unknown (see crossref#cldf:verbinfl)). However, in the case of jraneg’, it may occur for a different reason entirely. Historically, a verb suffixed with *-rï and followed by a particle *pïra was a distinct construction from a verb with an adverbializing negative suffix *-pïra and followed by a copula (Gildea and Meira 2016, Cáceres 2016).

Verbal negation


-janeg’ is pluralized with the postverbal particle kontomopl’. It is the negative counterpart to -sepst’. to do: hypothesis: if -se is perfective, -ja should be, too


  • very rare
  • etymology unknown
  • occurs on verbs
  • never preceded by TAM (?)
  • occurs with -podes
  • likely cognate in Tamanaku


  • prohibitive
  • coexists with V=jraneg’ COP-këimp
  1. You're going to go like this? Don't go like this. / así tu te vas a ir, no puedes ir así


  • -kempïnirëptcp.nzr.gno:neg
    • can this be analyzed as something other than a single suffix?
  • ‑yaponeg.purp

Nominal negation

  • =jraneg

Negative nonverbal predication

Other negation