Particles, ideophones and interjections

  • Koehn and Koehn 1986: 111 on Apalaí: "Particles follow words of any class other than the ideophone, and never occur as free forms or in isolation."


Three kinds of particles elsewhere in the family:

  1. second position (modals, focus)
  2. phrasal (focus)
  3. clause boundary

  4. prosodic effects?

to do: see Hoff 1968 on second position particles ["sentence-level meanings"]


  • a construction with nwa ‘thus’?
  1. ta-ta-ta, like that he rubbed us as if he was angry with us. / ta-ta-ta, así nos sobaba como si estuviera bravo de nosotros


  • can occur in isolation