Verbal roots and stems

Classes of verbs

Yawarana verb roots can be divided into those yielding an intransitive stem, and those yielding a transitive stem. The only inflectional criterion distinguishing the two classes is the third person prefix ta-, which only occurs (optionally, see crossref#cldf:verbinfl)) on transitive stems. Thus, transitive yawanka ‘kill’ takes ta- , but intransitive yaruwa ‘laugh’ does not . to do: subclass of intransitive [?]: -nëpëkë and -tëpëkë

    1. They laugh every day. / se rien cada dia (convrisamaj: 42)
  • potential additional verb classes:
    • detransitive
    • ditransitive
    • "n-adding"
    • accidental lability
    • irregular 'to go'
  • all transitive verbs are C‑ or i-initial because of the fossilization of y-lk
  • said y‑ disappears when preceded by the detransitivizer to do: add examples for transitive/detransitivized pairs with and without /y/

Verbalizing suffixes

None of these are productive, although there are many lexemes derived with them.


TBD: Introduction

-ta / -na

-tavbz.intr’ derives intransitive verbs (ref).

Lexemes derived with -ta

Base Derivation
suku ‘urine’ sujta ‘urinate’
kaimo ‘game’ kaimota ‘hunt’
yoko ‘pimple’ yokota ‘grow pimple’
wereyi ‘cloud’ wereyta ‘cloud over’
wanapu ‘savannah’ wanaputa ‘grow savannah grass’
sakau ‘sand’ sakauta ‘get sandy’
roko ‘crazy’ rokota ‘become crazy’
punu ‘flesh’ punta ‘form pulp’
pikë ‘fart’ pikëta ‘fart’
pichipichi ‘whitebait’ pichipichita ‘form whitebait’
naki ‘thirst’ nakita ‘be thirsty’
muku ‘child’ mukuta ‘have son’
moto ‘worm’ motota ‘fill with worms’
moroni ‘pain’ moronta ‘hurt’
mesuku ‘blood’ mesujta ‘bleed’
këmu ‘pus’ këmuta ‘emit pus’
konopo ‘rain’ konopota ‘start rainy season’
kawono ‘high’ kawonota ‘get high’
chëkëy ‘nit’ chëkëyta ‘fill with nits’
chimichimi ‘worm (dog)’ chimichimita ‘fill with worms (dog)’
chikë ‘chigger’ chikëta ‘get chiggers’
awochi ‘tumor’ awochita ‘form tumor’
asere ‘dry cough’ asereta ‘have dry cough’
aijkorono ‘recovered’ aijkoronota ‘recover’
ajpachi ‘undergrowth’ ajpachita ‘overgrows’
akï ‘worm, maggot’ akïta ‘fill with worms’

-pamï / -mamï

to do: check for -pantari; also see tri and way grammars


TBD: Introduction

-ka’ derives transitive verbs. to do: overview table of kavbz

-jtë / -të

  • -jtëvbz.trto do: overview table of jtevbz

-ma / -pa

  • -macausto do: overview table of macaus

Valency-changing affixes

TBD: Introduction

Detransitivizing prefixes

to do: distribution? morphemic analysis?

Transitivizing suffixes

  • -macausto do: what word classes does macaus attach to?
  • does’ go on intransitive verb stems? to do: search for -nïkï / -nïpï / -nëpï

Ditransitivizing suffixes

  • -pocaus

Meaning-changing suffixes

  • -podes’ (only occurs with -riipfv’ and jraneg’)
  • -pëtiplurto do: is there a cessative suffix?